Quality Planning Tools for Quality Management Plan
Quality Planning Tools is a commonly asked question on the Project Management Professional (PMP)® Exam. It is crucial that a Project Manager would be familiar with all aspects of Quality Planning Tools on the course in order to gain PMP® Certification.
What is Quality?
• “Quality is fitness for use” – Juran
• “Quality means conformance to requirements” – Crosby
• “Quality is the degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfil requirements” – Project Management Institutes, A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge, (PMBOK® Guide) - Fourth Edition, Project Management Institute, Inc., 2008 & ISO9000: 2000
• Quality is meeting customer expectations
What are the Quality Planning Tools?
Quality Planning Tools form part of the Quality Management Plan. There are six tools:
1. Control Charts
• Purpose is to determine whether or not a process is stable or has predictable performance
• Data gathering tool to show when a process is subject to a special cause variation
• Illustrate how a process behaves over time
• E.g. Project: Used to monitor cost or schedule variances. Product: Used to determine if the number of defects found during testing are acceptable or unacceptable
• Upper & lower control limits
2. Cost-Benefit Analysis
• Consider the cost-benefit trade off
• Benefit is less re-work, higher productivity, increased stakeholder satisfaction
• Cost is the expense associated with project quality mgmt activities
• Comparing actual or planned project activities to those of other projects
• Generate ideas for improvement
• Provide a basis to measure performance
• Can be internal or external projects
4. Design of Experiments (DOE)
• Statistical method that helps identify which variables have the most influence on the product or process
• “What if” analysis to determine what variables will impact product quality
• Also plays a role in optimization of product or process
• E.g. Car manufacturers use DOE to determine which combination of tires and suspension give the most desired ride characteristics at a reasonable cost
5. Cost of Quality
• Looking at how the cost of conformance & non-conformance to quality will cost the project and creating a balance
• Prevention costs
• Appraisal costs
• Failure costs
6. Additional Tools
A diagram showing how parts of a process or system relate
Used in Quality Planning to analyze potential future quality problems
Used in Quality control to analyze quality problems
Cause and effect
• Ishikawa diagrams
• Fishbone diagram
Brainstorming, Affinity Diagrams, Force field analysis
Remember, Quality Planning Tools is a commonly asked question in the PMP® Exam. In order to achieve the PMP® certification a project manager must be familiar with the Quality Planning tools.
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